Purdue research paper format

In such cases, give the page number of your edition making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume vol. See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited.

Reference List: Basic Rules

Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. JSTOR, doi Franck, Caroline, et al. If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others.

Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.


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Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s :. If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter, and verse.

Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source. Sources that take the form of a dialog involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialog should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch.

A period follows the name e. After the period, write the dialog.

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Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source.

Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page. Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers.

However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:. Herzog, Werner, dir. Klaus Kinski.

Filmverlag der Autoren, Yates, Jane. In the first example an online magazine article , the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. If the title of the article was not named in the sentence, an abbreviated version would appear in a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows:. Taylor, Rumsey. Accessed 29 Sep.

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Accessed 2 April To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:. When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources.

You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations, or common knowledge For example, it is expected that U.

Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical task, and, as such, can vary based on your audience. The MLA Handbook describes how to cite many different kinds of authors and content creators. A good way to do this is to simply use the standard MLA directions for a type of source that resembles the source you want to cite. You may also want to investigate whether a third-party organization has provided directions for how to cite this kind of source.

In cases like this, however, it's a good idea to ask your instructor or supervisor whether using third-party citation guidelines might present problems. Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Wordsworth Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process Wordsworth, William.

This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8 th ed. Because MLA style is most often used in the humanities, it is unlikely that you will include raw scientific data in an MLA-style paper, but you may be asked to include other kinds of research in your writing. Illustrations appear directly embedded in the document, except in the case of manuscripts that are being prepared for publication. For preparing manuscripts with visual materials for publication, see Note on Manuscripts below. MLA provides three designations for document illustrations: tables, figures, and examples see specific sections below.

Note: Rates for 65 and over category are age-adjusted using the standard population.


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Beginning in , population figures are adjusted for net underenumeration using the National Population Adjustment Matrix from the U. Census Bureau.

APA Sample Paper

People residing in personal care or domiciliary care homes are excluded from the numerator. Harry Potter and Voldemort final battle debate from Andrew Sims et al.

General Format

Notes serve two purposes: to provide bibliographic information and to provide additional context for information in the text. When it comes to citing illustrations, using notes allows for the bibliographic information as close to the illustration as possible. Note: Use semicolons to denote entry sections when long series of commas make these sections difficult to ascertain as being like or separate see examples below. The following examples provide information on how a note might look following an illustration.

If an illustration requires more than one note, label additional notes with lowercase letters, starting with a see the note underneath the example table above.